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Statistic Modifiers

Confusion

Many attacks in the game alter the statistics of either the attacker or
the victim. Sometimes statistic modification is the sole purpose of the
attack causing it (eg, Screech), while
sometimes it is merely an occasional sideeffect of a damaging attack
(eg, Aurora Beam). Statistics can also
be altered as a result of the BRN and PAR status changes.
In the Red, Blue, and Yellow games, there are seven statistics of
Pokémon that can change during the course of battle: HP, Attack, Defense,
Speed, Special, Evade, and Accuracy. Evade and
Accuracy are fundamentally different from the other five in several
ways, and will not be discussed here. Hit Points are also a special case,
in that HP does not change from what we normally think of as statistic
modifiers. A few moves (eg, Recover) can
increase your Pokémon's HP, while many, many moves can be used to decrease
the HP of your opponent.
The purpose of this document is therefore to explain the effect of
attacks that alter the remaining four statistics: Attack, Defense, Speed,
and Special.
Stat modifiers have two levels of potency: standard and great. The
former category includes attacks like Tail
Whip and Growth. The latter category
includes attacks that the game describes as "greatly" effective, such as
Screech and Amnesia.
When a statincreasing attack is used, and the relevant statistic is
starting at its normal value, the effect of the stat mod is easy to
describe. Standard mods increase the stat by 50% of its initial value with
each usage, while great mods increase the stat by 100% of its initial
value with each usage. Things are not so neat and tidy for the use of
statdecreasers, however. Nor is there any simple way to express the
effect of statincreasers on a statistic that has previously been lowered
below its initial value.
Fortunately, the following table provides an easy way to visualize the
effects of statistic modifiers. On the top row is the full range of
possible modifier values — a way to represent the current
direction and degree of modification for a given statistic. Ordinarily a
stat's mod value is zero. However, standard statincreasers raise the mod
value by 1, while great statincreasers raise it by 2. Standard
statdecreasers reduce the mod value by 1, while great statdecreasers
reduce the mod value by 2.
The numbers in the bottom row are the statistic multipliers that
correspond to each of the possible mod values.
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 
0 
+1 
+2 
+3 
+4 
+5 
+6 
0.25 
0.28 
0.33 
0.40 
0.50 
0.66 
1 
1.5 
2 
2.5 
3 
3.5 
4 
Let's illustrate these concepts with a few examples in which a
Pokémon's Attack statistic is altered. The most common Attack stat mods
are Swords Dance (a great increaser,
hence a mod value of +2), Meditate, and Sharpen (both standard increasers, hence mod
value = +1). Finally, Growl is a standard
decreaser, and therefore has a mod value of 1.
(Wait! We just said that statistics have "mod values". Now
we're saying that attacks have them too! What gives? Well, technically the
numbers ascribed to attacks should probably be called "net effect on mod
value", or "mod value deltas", but that's awfully cumbersome. We'll just
call these numbers "mod values", on the understanding that we're really
referring to how the attack affects the mod value of the stat.)
Example 1. Your Pokémon employs Swords Dance (+2) once, but
subsequently gets hit by one Growl (1). To find the current value of your
Pokémon's Attack statistic, sum the mod values of the relevant attacks
used to that point. In this case, (+2) + (1) = +1, so Attack will be at
1.5 times its normal value.
Example 2. Your Pokémon gets hit by 3 Growls (1, 1, 1) and then
uses Meditate (+1) once. The current mod value for its Attack will be (3)
+ (+1) = 2. Attack will therefore be at 0.50 times its normal
value.
The table specifies two limits of statistic modifiers: they cannot be used
to raise a stat to more than 4 times of its initial value (mod value +6),
nor lower it to less than 0.25 of its original value (mod value 6).
Additionally, no statistic can be raised above 999 or lowered below 1
without the use of a cheating device. Once either of the upper limits (+6 or
999) have been reached, subsequent statincreasers will fail. Once either of
the lower limits (6 or 1) have been reached, subsequent statdecreasers
will fail, though damaging moves with statlowering side effects will still
do damage: they will simply fail to produce the side effect.
If neither of the upper limits have been reached, but a statincreaser
would result in a mod value greater than +6 (or cause the stat to exceed
999), the move will raise the stat only up to the relevant limit. For
example, suppose a battling Lickitung
with an Attack mod value of +5 is instructed to use Swords Dance. The move
will not have full function (raising the Attack mod by 2), but will still
raise the stat up to the limit (Attack mod = +6). Subsequent Swords Dancing
will fail. Similarly, if neither of the lower limits have been reached, but
a statdecreaser would result in a mod value less than 6 (or cause the stat
to fall below 1), the move will lower the stat only down to the relevant
limit.
The 999 limit is what keeps a trained, L100
Mewtwo from successfully using Amnesia
more than twice. His Special is so obnoxiously high that it reaches 999
before the statistic multiplier reaches 4. However, if the Mewtwo is
subsequently hit by a Speciallowering Psychic, it will be able to use Amnesia again to
restore the stat to 999. Because Amnesia is a great stat mod, only one is
needed to fully recover from the effects of two Speciallowering
Psychics.
Altered statistic values are temporary: the effect of stat mods is
negated if the Pokémon switches away or faints, or if the battle ends. Haze also resets all the stats (other than HP) of
both Pokémon to their initial values.
Attack, Defense, and Special

Attack 
Type 
Base 
PP 
Pow 
Acc 
Avg 
Effects 
TM 
HM 
Aurora Beam 
ICE 
Spec 
20 
65 
99.6 
64.7 
lower victim Attack (10% chance) 
 
 
Growl 
NOR 
NDA 
40 
 
99.6 
 
lower victim Attack (100% chance) 
 
 
Meditate 
NOR 
NDA 
40 
 
100 
 
raise Attack (100% chance) 
 
 
Rage 
NOR 
Phys 
20 
20 
99.6 
19.9 
attacker goes nuts/
raise Attack when hit 
20 
 
Sharpen 
NOR 
NDA 
30 
 
100 
 
raise Attack (100% chance) 
 
 
Swords Dance 
NOR 
NDA 
30 
 
100 
 
greatly raise Attack (100% chance) 
03 
 

Acid 
POI 
Phys 
30 
40 
99.6 
39.8 
lower victim Defense (10% chance) 
 
 
Acid Armor 
POI 
NDA 
40 
 
100 
 
greatly raise Defense (100% chance) 
 
 
Barrier 
PSY 
NDA 
30 
 
100 
 
greatly raise Defense (100% chance) 
 
 
Defense Curl 
NOR 
NDA 
40 
 
100 
 
raise Defense (100% chance) 
 
 
Harden 
NOR 
NDA 
30 
 
100 
 
raise Defense (100% chance) 
 
 
Leer 
NOR 
NDA 
30 
 
99.6 
 
lower victim Defense (100% chance) 
 
 
Screech 
NOR 
NDA 
40 
 
84.4 
 
greatly lower victim Defense (100% chance) 
 
 
Tail Whip 
NOR 
NDA 
30 
 
99.6 
 
lower victim Defense (100% chance) 
 
 
Withdraw 
WAT 
NDA 
40 
 
100 
 
raise Defense (100% chance) 
 
 

Amnesia 
PSY 
NDA 
20 
 
100 
 
greatly raise Special (100% chance) 
 
 
Growth 
NOR 
NDA 
40 
 
100 
 
raise Special (100% chance) 
 
 
Psychic 
PSY 
Spec 
10 
90 
99.6 
89.6 
lower victim Special (30% chance) 
29 
 
All Attack, Defense, and Special Modifiers

You can use the system described in the General
section to understand how statistic modifiers will affect your Pokémon's
ability to do (and withstand) damage. Simply use the modifier value table
to find the multiplier for the relevant statistic, and use the new
statistic value at the appropriate place in the Battle Damage Formula. Thus, if
the relevant stat (Attack, if using a physical attack; Special, if using a
special attack) of the attacker has changed, you should adjust the value
of the B variable. If the relevant stat of the
defender has changed, adjust the value of the D
variable.
An interesting consequence of the way B and
D relate to each other in the damage formula is
that the interaction between say, Attackmodifiers and Defensemodifiers
is multiplicative, not additive. For instance, using either 3 Swords
Dances on yourself, or 3 Screeches on your opponent, will each ordinarily
result in 4x normal damage. However, using all six of these attacks in a
single battle (ie, with a single opponent who does not switch away) will
yield not 8x normal damage, but 16x. And Harden combined with Growl
is more effective at reducing damage than 2 Hardens. (All of this has been
confirmed through testing.)
Full descriptions of the physical and special attacks that have
statisticmodifying side effects can be found on their individual pages,
and advice on their use is available in the Attack Type comparison
pages.
None of these moves provide a very reliable means of altering
statistics, but Rage suffers an additional limitation: the Attack boost it
provides cannot be used to improve the effectiveness of any other attack.
The remainder of this section discusses the nondamaging statistic
modifiers.
Also worthy of note is Psychic, which, as if Mewtwo needed
another advantage, actually gets stronger as it used. It lowers the
victim's Special, the statistic on which Psychic defense is based. Acid
does a similar trick with the Defense statistic, but it is otherwise a
weak attack, and its Defenselowering side effect does not happen as
frequently as Psychic's.
All pure statistic modifiers have plenty of PP, and most are very
accurate. Furthermore, any nondamaging stat mod will work on any Pokémon
(eg, although it is Normal, Growl can be used to reduce
Haunter's Attack) so Type is not an
issue. A theoretical consideration for selection is addressed on the
Evade/Accuracy page: whether to choose a move that modifies the stats of the
Pokémon using it, or one that affects the enemy Pokémon. However, in
practice this really comes down to a choice between Growl and Defense Curl
for Chansey  not something that should
keep you up at night. A potential choice between Screech and Swords Dance
for Tentacruel or Lickitung is made
easy by Screech's lower accuracy, and there simply aren't any nondamaging
Speciallowering attacks to be weighed against Growth or Amnesia.
The major consideration for these moves is therefore whether to include
one of them in your Pokémon's moveset. When deciding, keep in mind that
offensive stat mods will typically not begin to pay off until the 2nd (for
great mods) or 3rd (for standard mods) round following their use. For
example, suppose you instruct Hitmonlee
to Meditate. On the subsequent round, a Hi
Jump Kick will do 1.5x the usual amount of damage  but remember that
Lee is already one kick behind (ie, the one he could have done instead of
stat boosting). On the next round, the boosted Lee will have delivered two
kicks at 1.5x normal power, or the equivalent of three kicks: exactly what
he would have done without Meditating! It is only on the 3rd round
following Meditation that the serene, contemplative Lee starts to show a
numerical advantage in asswhooping.
The problem with this scenario is that due to his low defensive stats,
Hitmonlee may not last long enough to make the statboosting worthwhile.
Even if he were able to learn Swords Dance, using it would be only
occasionally beneficial. A similar problem afflicts defensive
statboosters: sure it's nice to double or triple your Defense, but not if
the enemy has whittled you down to 1/5 of max HP in the meantime. Another
thing to remember when boosting a defensive stat is that Critical Hits
ignore statistic modifications entirely, and the fastest Pokémon (who are,
not coincidentally, among the most popular) tend to CH about 20 to 25% of
the time.
Because of these concerns, the best way to make a stat mod worthwhile
is to supplement it with an HPrestoring move such as Recover or Rest. Recover is only available to a handful of
lucky Pokémon, but nearly anyone can learn Rest, and can use Double Team to reduce the likelihood of
rude disturbances during nap time.
Finally, when looking for a way to make statistic modifiers work for
you, keep in mind that Growth and Amnesia are particularly attractive,
since they simultaneously boost the offensive and defensive capacity of
your Pokémon.
In the absence of any other Attack modifiers, the Attack statistic of a
burned Pokémon is cut in half. However, things get a lot more complex if
other Attack modifiers are also in effect. There be rough waters ahead for
the faint of heart, so you can skip past the rest of this section if you
aren't interested in the oddities of Attack interactions. If you are
interested, but are also impatient, skip down to the end of this section
and read the three rules that sum everything up...but it'll probably help
you understand things better if you let us walk you through this.
The simplest way to correctly predict the interaction between
Attackdecreasing moves and burns is to remember that at a mod value of 0,
the Attack of a BRNed Pokémon will be 1/2 of its normal value. For
example, suppose a Pokémon with 200 Attack becomes burned. Its Attack will
obviously become 100; if it is subsequently hit by Growl, its new Attack
will be 0.66 x 100, or 66.
It is therefore possible for a BRNed Pokémon to be at less than 0.25 of
its normal Attack. If the victim in the preceding example were hit by 6
Growls, its Attack would be 0.25 x 100, or 25. This is a mere 12.5% of its
original Attack!
Attackincreasing moves have an unexpected effect when used by burned
Pokémon: they negate the Attack penalty associated with that status change
and raise Attack by the expected amount. Thus, suppose our burned friend
(presently at 100 Attack) used Swords Dance: its Attack would become 400
(that is, 200 x 2)! The 2nd and 3rd uses of Swords Dance would also have
the expected effects: Attack would become 600 and then 800.
Now for the really tricky part. Even if Swords Dance has been used, and
the BRN penalty thereby negated, a subsequent use of Growl (or other
Attackreducing attack) in a link battle will affect Attack's mod value in
the usual way and reinstate the penalty caused by the burn! So,
suppose our friend had used Swords Dance only once, and was therefore at
400 Attack. If it were then hit by Growl, the new mod value would be (+2,
for Swords Dance) + (1, for Growl) = +1. The table tells us that this mod
value results in a statistic multiplier of 1.5. However, because Growl was
the last Attack modifier used, this multiplier will act upon 100, not the
normal value of 200. The Pokémon's Attack will therefore be 150.
In a wild battle, the situation is better for the burned Pokémon: any
Attack modifier negates the BRN penalty to that stat. Suppose that a BRNed
Pokémon with an Attack of 200 (hence, current Attack = 100) is hit by
Growl. This move will change the mod value to 1, which has a multiplier
of 0.66. However, the victim's Attack after Growl will be 0.66 x 200, or
132 (rounded down), not 0.66 x 100. In a wild battle, Growl on a BRNed
Pokémon will actually increase its Attack. (Yes, this is lunacy. Yes, we
have actually tested it.)
It's not known whether this confusing state of affairs was intended by
the game's programmers. Regardless, you can determine the current Attack
statistic of a BRNed Pokémon under any circumstances by applying the
following rules:
 Determine the mod value for Attack normally. That is, begin with 0
and subtract 1 for each instance of Growl or Aurora Beam (if it produces
its sideeffect). Add 1 for each instance of Meditate or Sharpen, and add
2 for each instance of Swords Dance.
 When the mod value is determined, use the table to find the
appropriate statistic multiplier.
 If the last Attack modifier used was an increaser (Mediate, Sharpen,
or Swords Dance, apply the stat multiplier to the normal Attack value
(that is, what it would be without the BRN). If you're in a link battle,
and the last Attackmodifier was Growl or Aurora Beam, apply the stat
multiplier to the BRN Attack (1/2 of the normal value). If you're in a
wild battle, all stat multipliers apply to the normal (nonBRN)
Attack.
Whew!
Reflect doubles the current value of the D
variable in the Battle Damage Formula, if the incoming attack is physical
in nature. Light Screen has the same effect, but is only helpful against
special attacks. However, this is not to say that these moves double the
statistic on which D is based: if this were the
case, Light Screen would increase a Pokémon's offensive capacity with
Special attacks, but this does not occur.
These attacks can be used in combination with statistic modifiers. No
Pokémon that learns Light Screen also learns either Growth or Amnesia, and
there are no TMs for any of these moves (though they might still be
combined through the use of Mimic). However,
a number of Pokémon that are able to learn Reflect can also learn a
Defenseboosting attack. As stated above, Reflect doubles the current
value of D.
Thus, suppose your Pokémon has a Defense of 100 and uses Harden. This
is a standard stat mod, and therefore will boost Defense to 150 in this
case. If your Pokémon also uses Reflect, the D
variable will become 300 when the incoming attack is physical. Note that
the order in which these moves are used has no effect on the final
protective value: Reflect simply takes the current value of D and multiplies it by 2. If Reflect had been used
first in this example, D would be 200 against
physical attacks until Harden was used. Of course, in an actual battle it
would be wise to use Reflect first: while building your full defense there
will be one round on which you can only have one attack in place, and
Reflect provides greater protection with a single use.
Reflect and Light Screen can interact with other defensive moves in
surprising ways if the value of D becomes very
high. Consider the following examples, in which a cheating device was used
to teach the Pokémon moves they could not ordinarily learn:
Example 1. A Mewtwo used Amnesia twice, after which its Special
was 999. A second Mewtwo used Surf against the
first, and damage was averaged over 10 trials. The Amnesia'd Mewtwo then
used Light Screen, and another 10 trials of Surf were done. Average damage
was virtually identical!
Example 2. A Golbat with a
Special of 181 was taught Amnesia and Light Screen, and used them to
defend against a Mew using Surf.
Without the benefit of either move, Golbat took an average of 100 HP of
damage from Surf (all averages are approximate, as only 4 to 6 trials were
done in each case). After one use of either Amnesia or LS, average damage
was about 60 points. After both moves were used (in either order), average
damage was about 30 points. So far, so good. However, after two uses of
Amnesia were combined with LS (again, the order did not matter), average
damage was 375 points! Finally, after three uses of Amnesia were combined
with LS, average damage was about 52 points.
The explanation for this appears to be that D
has a maximum value of 1023 (2^101, or 3FF in hexadecimal). When it
reaches 1024 (2^10, or 400 in hex), it "rolls over", so that 1024 is equal
to 1 for purposes of calculating damage. This theory is consistent with
the preceding examples. When the Mewtwo with 999 Special used Light
Screen, the D variable against special attacks
should have become 1998. If the value resets to 1 after 1023, however, the
actual value of D would have been 975 (1998 
1023): nearly the same as what it was without the use of Light Screen.
Meanwhile, Golbat's problems started when LS was combined with two uses
of Amnesia. This would result in a D of 1086
(181 x 3 x 2), but the 375 points of damage is explained if the rollover
reduced D to 63 (10861023): a fraction of his
normal, un"boosted" Special. A third use of Amnesia (with LS still in
place) would result in a D of 425 (1448  1023),
explaining the damage reduction that was found in the test.
Speed is modified in exactly the same way as Attack, Defense, and
Special, though of course the current value of your Pokémon's Speed is not
directly relevant to the Battle Damage Formula. In addition to the attacks
listed above, Speed can also be reduced by any move that causes paralysis. In the absence of any other Speed
modifiers, paralysis reduces the victim's Speed to 25% of its original
value.
The Speed modifiers listed above interact with the PAR penalty in the
same confusing way that Attack modifiers interact with the BRN penalty.
These interactions are illustrated with specific examples in the section
on burns, but in brief, you can determine the currect
Speed statistic of a PAR Pokémon under any circumstances by applying the
following rules:
 Determine the mod value for Speed normally. That is, begin with 0 and
subtract 1 for each instance of String Shot, Bubble, Bubblebeam, or
Constrict (only if the last 3 produce their sideeffect, of course). Add 2
for each instance of Agility.
 When the mod value is determined, use the table to find the
appropriate statistic multiplier.
 If Agility was the last Speedmodifying attack used, apply the stat
multiplier to the normal Speed value (that is, what it would be without
paralysis). If you're in a link battle, and the last Speedmodifier was
String Shot, Bubble, Bubblebeam, or Constrict, apply the stat multiplier
to the PAR Speed (1/4 of the normal value). If you're in a wild battle,
all stat multipliers apply to the normal (nonPAR) Speed.
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